### Variables

- Flow rate: how many water outcome in one second, one hour (litre/second, c.m/hour)
- Water Velocity: the speed water will run in the pipe. Normally it is not exceed 1.5m/s
- Pipe size: ID – inside diameter (mm)
- Pressure lost allowed: it mean that how much pressure loss through the pipe can be accepted.
- Pipe length: The more length of the pipe lateral, the bigger pipe size required.

## Pressure/Friction Loss

The calculation form determines the pressure or friction loss occurring over a specified length of pipeline with a given inside diameter and water volume.

## Sprinkler Lateral Friction Loss

This is for a sprinkler lateral with sprinklers on a regular interval and is plugged at the end.

## Pipe Water Velocity

The water velocity in a pipe can be determined using this calculation. While larger pipes tend to be costlier, it is crucial to maintain a low water velocity to minimize pressure losses caused by friction, water hammer, and changes in pipe movement resulting from water momentum alterations within the pipe.

The optimal water velocity in an irrigation system is in range 1.2 to 1.5m/sec (4 to 5.0ft/sec)

## RELATED CALCULATORS

**Water Velocity**

Used to calculate the velocity of water in a pipe. Bigger pipe is more expensive, but keeping the water velocity low is important to limit pressure losses due to friction, water hammer, and pipe movement due to water momentum changes inside the pipe.

The optimal water velocity in an irrigation system is in range 1.2 to 1.5m/sec (4 to 5.0ft/sec)

**Pipe size calculator**

This calculates the pressure or friction loss along a given length of pipeline with a specified inside diameter and flow rate.